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Trucking Injuries

You sit on your butt all day how can you become injured?

Over the last few months as many of you may recall, I switched to a new workplace position. That position involves working at nights. Now while I love driving and working, there is always one thing I dislike in any workplace and that one thing is workplace injuries.  While not uncommon, workplace injuries are something that people deal with everyday and in any job industry. Some industries are naturally far more dangerous than others. You may be asking yourself as a reader; well how can one who sits on their butt all day be in any position to be injured? Well let’s take a look at some of the more common trucking injuries and explain how those who sit on their butts can become injured.

The public misconception 

 There seems to be a misconception or an untruth in trucking that has been passed around. In fact, yesterday I had stopped at a Mac’s Store and a young lad with his girlfriend (he was aged about 22-24) asked me “if I was the driver of the truck and trailer parked on the street”. I said “yes”. He then asked me |”if it paid a lot”. I told him “well it depends on what a lot of money is and what it is you want to do”. He replied “sit on my butt all day and do nothing”. My first response was “this isn’t the job for you” and I quickly left. These misconceptions about the industry in no way do anyone any good. If everyone had this misconception, soon truckers would be valiant warriors requiring no sleep. Oh wait, we already have no sleep so we must have passed that level already.

The fact remains that this misconception needs to be broken. Men and Women who drive trucks are prone to injury and we do alot more than what the general public is led to believe. Things like swamping, tarping, tightening, strapping, cinching, climbing, opening, closing are just some of the jobs we do on a daily basis and each one presents it’s own difficulties.

Common Workplace Injuries in Trucking 

Sitting for extended periods of time can place a lot of stress on a lower back. It has been well documented that many people and not just drivers who are seated for long periods of time suffer from debilitating Lumbar pain.

Falls are a frequent cause of Worker Claims in trucking. From falling off the back of trailers, falling off lumber while tarping to falling off shipper/receiver platforms to falling out of the truck missing a step are all accidents of which some can be serious.

Broken Teeth, Black Eyes, Pulled Shoulders, Smashed Glasses, broken fingers, smashed knuckles. While all of these may seem unfamiliar, picture someone with a metal bar pulling on it instead of pushing and the bar slips out.  Those drivers who work with Straps, Belts and cinches will understand well about what I am saying. Many a new driver learns real quick to push and not pull the bar.

Knee Injuries are quite a common injury. With the reason being that the driver must operate a clutch pedal and in city traffic a driver could be clutching many times up and down. The clutch on a truck is much heavier than that of a car.

Tendonitis of the Elbow is another injury truckers can get. Carrying heavy objects such as a bar quite frequently and repetitive strain on the same ligament can cause long term nerve damage. A good example is holding the steering wheel with the arm at an awkward position or tightening and untightening belts consistently.

General back pain from heavy lifting can also cause Hernias. A lot of drivers are required to swamp loads at various food warehouses which in my opinion should not be allowed but drivers are directed to do so and often at times when they are supposed to be out of service or off duty.

Head bruises are not so common but they are a pain in the ass. They most commonly occur jumping in and out of a truck fast and catching the top of the door frame on the melon. Mostly this causes angry ego and induced words of which I wouldn’t write on here to erupt and spew forth.

Of course the above are nothing compared to more serious workplace trucking accidents which can include loss of limbs, paralysis and death. These more serious accidents are usually reserved for on highway rollovers and collisions. Factors which mitigate these accidents can be anything from other inattentive road users to Drugs/Alcohol to Sleep Deprivation.

Well whatever it is that you do my friends. Drive a truck, cook in a restaurant, work on a ship or work in a factory all day long. Regardless what it is you do, be sure to stay safe and practice safety at all times. Nothing can replace a limb or a life.



Travels of a Trucker Teaching a New Generation

A couple of weeks ago I was driving home from the new job that I have just started. The new job is situated in the middle of Surrey near many driving schools and an ICBC road test center. It was on my way home from work one morning when 2 things caught my attention. The first thing that came to mind was at the intersection of 132st and 88th ave I saw a truck clearly marked APNA Driving School. Now typically it doesn’t mean anything to me that someone is training but what caught my eye is that this driver who was being trained by a “supposed” Class 1 driving instructor had no lights on. There were no clearance lights on the trailer, no lights on the truck, not even daytime running lights. The truck was a Freightliner and thus the driver has all the controls to turn on and off the lights regardless if driving or not. What amazed me is that this is how our new drivers are taught!! To drive down the road and learn from a “professional instructor” and they are not even taught to turn on the lights. Now as you can imagine with the name APNA, it was a driver and a teacher of another mother but irregardless of the race, driving with the lights on is the law in BC at certain times. At least in so far as having Daytime running lights on at the minimum which most vehicles come equipped with nowadays. The time of this event was well outside the law which states 1/2 hour before sunset and 1/2 hour to sunrise. Now of course the driver at this time was not breaking any law, but the thought of how this driver was being trained will be a reflection of this drivers thought processes and abilities at a later date when he is alone and by himself driving a commercial vehicle on the highway. At the very least the professional driving instructor should always maintain and enforce the turn on light policy to each and every new driver and potential driver. Not only for Safety but just because it is good policy to use and utilize them.

The second thing that caught my attention, again a couple of weeks ago, was a driving instructor driving their marked driving school vehicle. Now it just wasn;t the fact it was marked, it was the fact it was driving well below the set limit of the road speed and well below the flow of traffic which was travelling at least 10km an hour above the 50km posted speed. Now granted if the instructor wants to drive 40 in a 50 they have every right to do so, but there is also another law in place to protect motorists from drivers such as this:


Slow driving

145  (1) A person must not drive a motor vehicle at so slow a speed as to impede or block the normal and reasonable movement of traffic, except when reduced speed is necessary for safe operation or in compliance with law.

(2) If the driver of a motor vehicle is driving at so slow a speed as to impede or block the normal and reasonable movement of traffic, a peace officer may require the driver to increase his or her speed, or to remove the motor vehicle from the roadway to the nearest suitable place and to refrain from causing or allowing the motor vehicle to move from that place until directed to do so by a peace officer.

Now the reason I bring this up is not so much that I am telling this person to speed, but if the average motorist is doing 60 in a 50, and this driving instructor is impeding the normal rate, flow and average of traffic, they are thus blocking the flow of traffic. Granted the speed limit is 50. Going 40 in the 50 is unacceptable. I believe teaching new drivers this methodology of going slower than the posted speed limit is setting them up for road rage, tailgating, becoming more prone to being rear ended and therefore putting the motoring public at an undue risk for the sake of going a few kilometers less than the posted speed. For a driving instructor to be doing this is even more unacceptable in my opinion.

So I guess your all wondering…how is the new job? Well as you may or may not have heard my last employer shut down operations and was in the process of selling his equipment off at a truck consignment in Abbotsford. I had the pleasure of bringing 4 of the trucks for sale there and dropping them off. Then it took my employer over 1 month to pay for my previous month which included a bounced cheque. He did eventually pay me off and I have since moved on to better grounds. Hauling Chickens I am now. Running all over farmland from Agassiz to Delta picking up live Chickens to bring back to the processors. Now I really do have a feeling for the Chickens. I may like to eat Chicken, but the Chicken I am eating is a Chicken I am not transporting and is generally what I would call something that is “what you can;t see won’t hurt you ideology”. To actually bring the Chickens to the processors, I close off my mind about what is going to happen to them. I sometimes pet them as they sit in the cages while I am loading them and it almost seems as though they like the touch of being petted. I feel sorry for them as I know the fate that lies ahead. Occasionaly I see a Chicken that has been hurt from the loading process. I can see the blood from a cut as they are sometimes thrown into the cages and the workers give the cages a shut and pull to use gravity at pushing the Chickens to the back of the cage. Sometimes in the process of doing this the Chickens get hurt as the body parts may not all be in the cage as it is pushed and pulled.

I really do feel for the Chicken when I see them like this but what can I do. I just feel a little more sorry for them as I think to myself that their pain is far from over. I was loading Chickens the other night and one Chicken had a bloody and closed eye. The other eye was not open but I began to pet it and rub it’s little head giving it some sign of comfort. I could almost feel that Chicken asking me what was happening. A few minutes later that chicken was put on the top row of the trailer and I never saw that one again. Then on my last shift Thursday night, one of the Chickens had a larger than average hole in it’s cage due to the plastic being broken. It was enough it could stick it;s head out. I began to pet that Chicken and for a few moments I felt that Chicken actually liked it’s head being rubbed. The reason why, I walked away and the Chicken put it’s head back When I reappeared a few minutes later, it was like there was a bond and that Chicken put it’s head out for me when I came back. But I close my eyes and blindly lock the cages into place on the truck as I transport them to the processors. As I disconnect the trailer at the processors I can only think that I am sorry for these little birds and that the pain they are suffering as they are loaded is only going to be more frightening as they move further the processing line.

Well take care my friends. Until my next issue.

Be safe.



New Job, New Roles, New Responsibilities

It;s been a few weeks since I last wrote. Partly since I had been going through another employer issue with non payment. Seems that this has become the trend nowadays for employers to work you and then forget about the payment. The work gets done and they seem to forget that the work was done and avoid payment altogether or simply write bad cheques. Well long story short, I knew this employer was selling the company trucks and keeping lease operators. I didn’t know about his financial situation except to say that he was losing money running Canada only with the cost of fuel. I tried to hang in there and be a trooper like I always am putting my best foot forward and talking to the employer who reassured me he would give me notice. Well sadly he didn’t give me any notice. He simply asked me to start transporting the trucks to Larry’s Sales in Abbotsford. So there I was bringing truck #306, then #303, then #300 over to Abbotsford and the truck I was driving #307 was sitting and is still sitting in the parking lot where he keeps his equipment. Then he asked me to bring 2 trailers back to Ocean Trailer in Delta. I did all that even though my cheque had bounced. I still hounded him for trips even though he left me sitting at home.

Then the realization sunk in. I wasn’t getting any more trips. He was starving me out of work to avoid laying me off and paying the severance pay employers would normally have to give if they lay someone off. I was at a deadend. I knew I needed to work but at the same time I needed to stay close to this guy to get my pay. I have to say, he did pay me the previous cheque he owed but he wanted to ensure that my cheque was good so he stalled me until he got a cashier’s cheque. Not sure why he could not just go and get cash. Meanwhile, the bills are piling up, the wife is riding my ass, and I am looking for work. The options were quite limited. I could apply for work where my friends worked but I prefer to be my own man and find my own jobs. I guess it is the feeling that I would just prefer to avoid working where friends worked to avoid any employer negativity towards them if the job did not pan out for me based on their putting in a good word for me.

So back to the drawing board. Checking Craigslist daily and the Job bank. Submitting resume after resume. I did get some calls, but to be honest my heart was just not into going out on the road for awhile. I had just paid for my VHF to be installed at Metro Mobile radio in Langley and that set me back $345 for the install and supplies. I had left everything when I left Russel freightways except to ring my radio. I left my antennae, my powersource and the quick connect base. With this payment my wife freaked out on me when she found out how much it set me back and within a few weeks of having it installed I was on the end of bad news.

A few days after applying for many jobs, a Craigslist ad showed up for a company called Sunrise Livehaul. Unfamiliar with the work, I just knew that I had seen their trucks out and about and that it was local work. I shot off my resume, commercial abstract and claim history. The next day I got a call to come in for a ride along on a Thursday night which is also their Friday night. So away I went. It was ok. Not much driving but lots of sitting and waiting. The following week I went in and little did I know just how much that would change. With 3 load nights running back and forth between Surrey and Chilliwack, it was busy. I ran just as many hours as it would take me to do a Calgary and even then I was running longer than a Calgary run. I stopped just short of my 14th hour on my first night with 4 more nights of training with the Supervisor to go. I had another 3 trip night on my 2nd night and after that it was peaches with 2 load nights that still lasted 10 hours. I made it through the week (this week) uneventful except to learn about the ins and outs of Chicken hauling and weighing a trailer in and out which is also quite monotonous. Other than that it was all night shift work with odd hours. One night I would start at 6pm, the next night at 10 pm, then 12am then 1am and then 11pm. Off the wall hours and all ran into the morning hours which is quite the drag. I am a dedicated 8am -3 am person and the hours played quite a toll on the body. I did make it through the week without any problems and I guess I will be sticking with this for awhile. I know the wife is happy I am home daily and of course I will also have more computer time too which gives me time to get back blogging. I’ll tell you all some stories of my Chicken hauling days in the future. For now, thanks for reading.


Travels of a Trucker What to Say

Well it seems that I pondered and wrote, wrote and reflected, disregarded and rewrote and now I have nothing to write. Actually it isn;t that bad. I was just at a loss of words thinking what would make the masses read my blog. What would make them come. What would make them like my Facebook Page. What would make me a rising star. What would make me noticed as a small fish in a big pond. Surely I am no American Idol on the way to Stardom and Fame. I am not someone who from obscurity rose to having thousands of fans and 10 fan pages created on Facebook for me. So what does it take I reflect? I guess singing is out of the question for me. My voice crackles so badly I am sounding like Burnell Taylor. Cooking is totally out the door. I can eat it all but never cook it. Being a sports athlete went out the window when I was 16, started smoking and hung around with the wrong crowds. Reality TV has not called me yet. No Editors have banged on my door looking for me to do writeups for their newspapers/magazines yet. So sadly, here I sit waiting for my one day of 15 minute stardom. A stardom that some have on a daily basis.

Take for example my friend Drew Sherwood. Him and I were shooting the shit on a trip to Calgary last week Drew (Ice Road Trucker Reality TV Show… Then there is Rosette Luv. An awesome top Billboard singer who sings a Top Rated song called “Amnesia”.

Then I have another friend who runs a succesful high end Purse/Handbag collection called GYRStyle.

2 American Idol Hopefuls whose dreams were cut short but still have had a 15 minute of fame and whose careers will skyrocket based on their American Idol performances. These 2 are Cortez Shaw and Breanna Steer I wish all the people I have mentioned all the success in the world but I say it of course with all the hopes that one day I too may be noticed….hopefully it isn’t anything bad either…lol

Now I certainly cannot be any of these previous examples. They are friends who have had their time to shine and are still shining. It was funny though, talking with Drew my questions of course centered on what kind of fans did he have? I think there was also some ulterior motive there….lol…How many women Drew?? Were they hot Drew?? Just kidding. But seriously luck comes and goes. Fame comes and goes. I guess at this rate my friendship with those who are in the spotlight continues to grow while my mediocre trend continues waiting for some Editor to notice me…some literary book publishing agent calls me…or I win a lottery and suddenly everyone wants to be my friend…will all have to wait while I continue to pound pavement

Sitting here I am listening to another well known Idol from last year who was the runner up…Jessica Sanchez. She has a new single out with Ne-Yo. How cool is that. What an awesome song they have together. Check it out.

And while your at it, check out my latest friend on Facebook…

She has a new album in the works…can anyone guess wheat she does for a living? Do you watch American Idol at all??? Come on…ok, ok…she is one of the back up singers for the American Idol band. How cool is that! If I had a job like that…I’d be smiling all day too!! Ryan Seacrest would have nothing on me! Braking hard here! What the hell does this have to do with trucking? Well absolutely nothing, but hey lets play a game.

You see a good writer like myself could tie this all into a trucking post. Lets try this on for size. Musicians, Singers and Truckers are all the same. Why? We travel. We stay away from home for extended periods. We have people who count on us. So there you have it fellow drivers. Don;t let anyone tell you that you are not a Superstar because you are!

Thanks for reading!


Travels of a Trucker Disturbing Trends

While we all experience it at one time or another, those who drive trucks are more apt to experience it. What am I talking about? I am talking about disturbing trends. Trends to which those in smaller vehicles place themselves in danger by doing acts which are extremely unsafe. Now again I reiterate that these trends do not just follow truckers but they also occur with other smaller vehicles on the road.

Passing on Solid Lines and Double Solid Lines

There has been an upward growing trend seen lately where smaller vehicles who believe they have every right to not be slowed down or have no patience are passing everything that stands between them and their destination. They feel that trucks are just ignorant of the fact that we should have less road rights than them and they feel the need to exercise these rights by passing unsafely on Solid lines, Double Solid lines and approaching corners. On my last trip back from Edmonton I witnessed 2 vehicles and heard on the radio about these same 2 vehicles passing everything they could wherever they could. I watched them passing on Solid lines and going into corners with their passes. It was just plain luck that nothing happened and that they managed to scrape by on this trip. I can say assuredly that this type of behavior does not go unchecked for very long before serious consequences occur for not only the drivers of these vehicles but also the innocent persons who find these vehicles in their lanes coming into a corner.

Turn Lanes become their personal through road

There is one trend which really has me fuming. Approaching a light that has ONLY ONE straight through lane and I am in it at the front the first vehicle stopped at the light. There is a right lane which is a TURN LANE. However, there are some road users who feel that this is their personal through lane to not only get around traffic but also to get around the truck/s waiting at that same light. I see them very consistently and can almost sense now when they are going to cheat. On more than one occasion they have barely squeaked by between the truck and the head on barrel protectors. I shake my head at this behavior and again it is a behavior that will one day be costly if the driver fails to negotiate the sharp curve they are suddenly placing themselves into or they may not realize the truck has a little more speed when empty and is not aware they are racing to pass them.

Slow trucks become fast trucks

There is a common irritant and a it becomes something of a groaner for all road users. Sitting behind a truck who is holding traffic up. On approach or start to a passing lane this same truck won’t allow other road users to pass safely. They will sit there with their foot on the throttle given that their company policy is to restrict their speed they will hammer it down every chance they get regardless of who they are interfering with. On more than one occasion as I am sure everybody has I have encountered these persons who would rather create an accident than avoid one. Now I am not talking out my ass here, there actually is a law in place with which these persons need to remember and familiarize themselves with.

Duty when overtaking

157  (1) Except as provided in section 158, the driver of a vehicle overtaking another vehicle

(a) must cause the vehicle to pass to the left of the other vehicle at a safe distance, and

(b) must not cause or permit the vehicle to return to the right side of the highway until safely clear of the overtaken vehicle.

(2) Except when overtaking and passing on the right is permitted, a driver of an overtaken vehicle,

(a) on hearing an audible signal given by the driver of the overtaking vehicle, must cause the vehicle to give way to the right in favour of the overtaking vehicle, and

(b) must not increase the speed of the vehicle until completely passed by the overtaking vehicle.

The law is quite clear on this. If you are being passed you must yield and allow the driver who is passing to merge back safely. This is not the time to hammer down and maintain pace with the driver who is passing. In my case, I have a GoPro Camera with me so I can record the events and record if the driver is not in fact yielding when I pass them.

Well there you have it. Three disturbing trends which are becoming quite popular in a disastrous and dangerous way on roads and highways. Of course safety and responsibility is every road users common goal, but there are some who seriously lack it and we must account for them.

Drive Safe



Why don’t they?

Like any person who drives the road, I have my own thoughts and ideas on what places should do to make things better not only for me but for all road users. At least in my opinion. As we progress into the age of technology and free will it should come as no surprise some of the arguments that I will propose should be changed below.

Jasper Park

While Jasper Park is just another part of the road for me to travel through it really should advance into the new age. This would mean eliminating the park gate at both ends and installing licence plate reading equipment. This would eliminate the huge and heavy delays in the Summer months when all the tourists are planning to stop in Jasper. Having the electronic readers would eliminate frustration on the part of road users and truckers who are already under time constraints, keep the economy moving and reduce Carbon Footprint from idling trucks. The reader would allow tourists an alloted time such as 2-3 hours to get through the park or a bill would be sent to the road users home for the cost of the pass.

Edson Bypass

While most cities are moving to the trend of bypasses to reduce congestion, keep the economy moving and flowing and further reduce Carbon Footprints, places like Edson have not moved forward yet. Having a bypass installed around Edson would eliminate the need for truckers and other road users to feel trapped at having to do 50km on a major highway. In my opinion Edson iss selfish if they are not considering building  any type of bypass.

4 Lane Highways

While much of Canada is slowly and I do mean slowly changing into the 4 lane highway system, much is needed to be done still. Such examples are Highway 5 from Kamloops to Valemount. Highway 16 from Tete Jaune Cache to Hinton. Highway 1 from Chase through to Alberta Border. With the amount of road traffic increasing every year it is time to start thinking of ways to move the economy.

Repairing what we have

While I propose increasing 4 lane highways, I am also a proponent that we repair and maintain what we have also. Everywhere I go (Alberta Border being a prime example) the road bumps are terrible. Cracked asphalt, frost heaved roads, potholes. It;s like running a gauntlet determining which part of the road is not going to damage my tires or crack a ubolt. I look at the Coquihalla highway as an example of an engineering feat that has lasted 30 years. If we can have the Coquihalla survive for 30 years why can we not have the rest of our roads survive 30 years?

Sand and not Rock

Glass repair shops love Winter. Is it any wonder when they lay down rocks!!! Many a time I have to thank my Windshield for being there and saving my face as the rocks that hit my shield have already led to my Windshields being replaced. Sand is just as good. With enough sand laid down the snow and sand will mix to a muddy slush which may pit and scratch Windshields over time but the results are not going to lead to cracks which will result in eventual Windshield replacement.

Too Many Scales

Chances are if you truck through BC for any amount of time you will get pulled into one of our myriad of scales that are continuosly open. A couple of years ago you would have had to run 4 scales from the time you left Surrey to the time you reached Golden. In order it would have been Highway 1 Eastbound, Hunter Creek, Kamloops Eastbound and Golden on Highway 1 or Tete Jaune on Highway 5. Since construction has taken away the Highway 1 there still remains three scales to get through in such a short period of time. My argument is that in the 9 hours it takes me from Surrey to Golden the only thing that has changed is the amount of fuel I have remaining. Does the Government really feel the need to stop the same trucker 3 times in such a short window?? In my opinion no, but again I am not the Government. All one has to do is look to the rest of the country to see the more liberal attitudes towards trucks and truckers. A good example being Alberta with all it’s “Self Weigh” stations which BC sorely needs. Sure there are a couple of scales open consistently, but they don’t drag drivers in unless there is a safety blitz going on. The same could be said for Ontario. Manitoba on the other hand has 2 scales which are consistently open and they are as much trouble as BC is. Constantly pulling drivers in and doing random checks. (Headingly and Westhawk).

Well my dear reader, if I was in a position of power, these are the changes I would make. Do you have any more to add?

Safe Travels


You Live in Lumby? Do you know this person?

As a trucker I am very attached to my VHF Radio. It’s an important part of my communication with other truckers. It tells me the weather up ahead. It tells me about accidents up ahead. It tells me about police traps up ahead. It is a vital tool which I am somewhat lost without now. Don;t get me wrong, I have gone for years before without one except for a CB Radio. I have gone without any communication both CB and VHF and trust me it;s a game of chance and in a sense a game of Russian Roulette when there is no sense of what is going on with the road ahead of me. Sure there may be the odd flash of bright lights but that doesn’t tell me much except that there might be a police trap. It doesn’t tell me what lays around the next corner. So to me the VHF plays an important role and every so often we hear someone on the radio who is interesting to listen to.

On this last trip I was coming back from Edmonton having started from Airdrie in the morning and picking up a load in Edmonton. It was a smooth trip having started from Airdrie early and leaving Edmonton early. As a matter of fact it was a pleasant trip all around. Only this time I was listening to a few guys on the radio who had switched channels and were chatting on channel 2. The typical channel that truckers run on is called Ladd 1. I was listening to the conversation quite intently. It was broadcasting very clearly since they were very close to me. They were chatting about interesting things which made my trip that much more interesting. As a matter of fact the chat they were having was at times x rated and it got me laughing on more than one occasion.

Somewhere along the way listening to them I had to join in on the conversation. First I apologized for of course eavesdropping and then I said they were making my drive very interesting with their chatter. What got my interest is that one of the persons talking lived in Lumby and I have a Facebook friend who also lives in Lumby so of course I had to ask the person if they knew my Facebook friend. (If she reads this she knows who she is). Of course the person I was talking to said he recognized the name but didn’t know the person. Well that got me into the conversation and for the next almost 3 hours of our journey I was in like Flynn. Chattering about this and that time went by quickly.

As we chatted I learned who I was talking with. I was talking with 2 pilot vehicles who were headed home and another trucker who was their friend and I was also talking with none other than Drew Sherwood. Now if your not familiar with who Drew Sherwood is…then you are definitely not watching enough Reality TV Shows. If you know who Drew Sherwood is then you’ve certainly been watching too much Reality TV. Either way your screwed! 🙂

Seriously though. Drew Sherwood is none other than an original ICE ROAD TRUCKER Reality TV Star.

Now if you Google his name of course lots more links are out there on this chap but for me it was an exciting trip to talk to and listen to this driver. Now of course he is just another driver and in the end he puts his pants on the same way I do every morning, but in the end, he was on TV starring on a reality TV series and I have not been. So there it is folks, you never know who is on the other end of the VHF. It could be me, it could be Drew Sherwood. Ya just never know.

Take care,